The Church of Holy Sepulchre maybe is the most holy place for christians around the World.
The traditions from Byzantine era is a strong pillar of the faith, to Catholics, Greeks Orthodox, Coptics and Syrians believe that is the Tomb of Joseph of Arimathea tomb and ancient Garden, the Golgotha Hill.
“When the even was come, there came a rich man of Arimathaea, named Joseph, who also himself was Jesus’ disciple: He went to Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus. Then Pilate commanded the body to be delivered. And when Joseph had taken the body, he wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, And laid it in his own new tomb, which he had hewn out in the rock: and he rolled a great stone to the door of the sepulchre, and departed.”
Matthew 27:57–60 KJV
The location of the crucifixion and Jesus' burial, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is the highlight of a trip to the Christian Quarter. Originally built by Constantine, destroyed, rebuilt and renovated over the years, the church is an impressive architectural structure, designed to evoke images of the last hours of Jesus' life. The chapel is shared by the Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Armenian Apostolic denominations.
The tomb in which Jesus’ body was interred, a rock-hewn cave intended for the burial of Joseph of Arimathea (Matt. 27:57-60) located outside the walls of Jerusalem (John 19:41; Heb. 13:12).
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, dedicated on 15 July 1149, the 50th anniversary of the Crusader conquest of Jerusalem, stands over the places identified by ancient tradition as Golgotha and the tomb of Jesus. Excavations beneath the church have shown that the site was an ancient quarry reused as a burial place in the 1st century. The area was first enclosed within city walls by Herod Agrippa (41–44), some 10 years after the crucifixion of Jesus (Josephus BJ 5.147–55; Ant. 19.326–27).
Emperor Hadrian refounded Jerusalem as Aelia Capitolina (A.D. 135) and erected over the tomb of Jesus a temple of Jupiter with a statue of Venus nearby (Eusebius Vita Const.; Jerome Ep. 58; Dio Cassius Hist. 69.12). After the Council of Nicea (325), Constantine ordered the pagan temple torn down and a church erected in its place. Constantine’s engineers after removing the temple discovered a tomb identified as that of Jesus (Eusebius Vita Const. 3.25–40). A great rotunda was constructed above the tomb. Immediately to the east of the rotunda Golgotha stood in the open air in the southwest corner of a large colonnaded courtyard connecting the rotunda with a huge basilica called the Martyrium (“Witness,” to the place of Jesus’ death and resurrection). In 1009 Egyptian Caliph Hakim ordered the destruction of Constantine’s church, and in 1048 a new church was built on the foundations of the rotunda. The Crusaders incorporated this church into their grand plan, covering the rotunda and courtyard of predecessor churches and a space once occupied by the western portion of Constantine’s basilica.
Skeptics doubt that early Jewish Christians preserved the memory of the actual sites and ascribe the 4th-century identification to the desire of Constantine to propagandize his newfound faith and the desire of the Jerusalem church to exalt itself over other ecclesiastical centers. However, the location (outside the 1st-century city) has the requisite marks archaeologically, and Eusebius, no advocate of a strong Jerusalem, favors the identification, supporting the idea of continuous Christian memory.
Bibliography. M. Biddle, The Tomb of Christ (London, 1999); C. Couasnon, The Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem (Oxford, 1974); J. Finegan, The Archaeology of the New Testament, rev. ed. (Princeton, 1992), 258–82; J. Wilkinson, Jerusalem as Jesus Knew It (Nashville, 1983).
Wherefore Jesus also, that he might sanctify the people with his own blood, suffered without the gate.
Hebrews 13:12 KJV
“Then Pilate therefore took Jesus, and scourged him. And the soldiers platted a crown of thorns, and put it on his head, and they put on him a purple robe, And said, Hail, King of the Jews! and they smote him with their hands. Pilate therefore went forth again, and saith unto them, Behold, I bring him forth to you, that ye may know that I find no fault in him. Then came Jesus forth, wearing the crown of thorns, and the purple robe. And Pilate saith unto them, Behold the man! When the chief priests therefore and officers saw him, they cried out, saying, Crucify him, crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Take ye him, and crucify him: for I find no fault in him. The Jews answered him, We have a law, and by our law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God. When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he was the more afraid; And went again into the judgment hall, and saith unto Jesus, Whence art thou? But Jesus gave him no answer. Then saith Pilate unto him, Speakest thou not unto me? knowest thou not that I have power to crucify thee, and have power to release thee? Jesus answered, Thou couldest have no power at all against me, except it were given thee from above: therefore he that delivered me unto thee hath the greater sin.And from thenceforth Pilate sought to release him: but the Jews cried out, saying, If thou let this man go, thou art not Caesar’s friend: whosoever maketh himself a king speaketh against Caesar. When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he brought Jesus forth, and sat down in the judgment seat in a place that is called the Pavement, but in the Hebrew, Gabbatha. And it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour: and he saith unto the Jews, Behold your King! But they cried out, Away with him, away with him, crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Shall I crucify your King? The chief priests answered, We have no king but Caesar.”
John 19:1–15 KJV
“Then delivered he him therefore unto them to be crucified. And they took Jesus, and led him away. And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha: Where they crucified him, and two other with him, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst.
And Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the cross. And the writing was, JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS. This title then read many of the Jews: for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city: and it was written in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin. Then said the chief priests of the Jews to Pilate, Write not, The King of the Jews; but that he said, I am King of the Jews. Pilate answered, What I have written I have written. Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part; and also his coat: now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout. They said therefore among themselves, Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be: that the scripture might be fulfilled, which saith, They parted my raiment among them, and for my vesture they did cast lots. These things therefore the soldiers did. Now there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother, and his mother’s sister, Mary the wife of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene. When Jesus therefore saw his mother, and the disciple standing by, whom he loved, he saith unto his mother, Woman, behold thy son!Then saith he to the disciple, Behold thy mother! And from that hour that disciple took her unto his own home. After this, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst.Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar: and they filled a spunge with vinegar, and put it upon hyssop, and put it to his mouth. When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost.”
John 19:16–30 KJV
“The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was an high day,) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away. Then came the soldiers, and brake the legs of the first, and of the other which was crucified with him. But when they came to Jesus, and saw that he was dead already, they brake not his legs: But one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and forthwith came there out blood and water. And he that saw it bare record, and his record is true: and he knoweth that he saith true, that ye might believe. For these things were done, that the scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken. And again another scripture saith, They shall look on him whom they pierced.
And after this Joseph of Arimathaea, being a disciple of Jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews, besought Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus: and Pilate gave him leave. He came therefore, and took the body of Jesus. And there came also Nicodemus, which at the first came to Jesus by night, and brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about an hundred pound weight. Then took they the body of Jesus, and wound it in linen clothes with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bury. Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden; and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein was never man yet laid. There laid they Jesus therefore because of the Jews’ preparation day; for the sepulchre was nigh at hand.”
John 19:31–42 KJV
“The first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre. Then she runneth, and cometh to Simon Peter, and to the other disciple, whom Jesus loved, and saith unto them, They have taken away the Lord out of the sepulchre, and we know not where they have laid him. Peter therefore went forth, and that other disciple, and came to the sepulchre. So they ran both together: and the other disciple did outrun Peter, and came first to the sepulchre. And he stooping down, and looking in, saw the linen clothes lying; yet went he not in. Then cometh Simon Peter following him, and went into the sepulchre, and seeth the linen clothes lie, And the napkin, that was about his head, not lying with the linen clothes, but wrapped together in a place by itself. Then went in also that other disciple, which came first to the sepulchre, and he saw, and believed. For as yet they knew not the scripture, that he must rise again from the dead. Then the disciples went away again unto their own home.
But Mary stood without at the sepulchre weeping: and as she wept, she stooped down, and looked into the sepulchre, And seeth two angels in white sitting, the one at the head, and the other at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain. And they say unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? She saith unto them, Because they have taken away my Lord, and I know not where they have laid him. And when she had thus said, she turned herself back, and saw Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus. Jesus saith unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? whom seekest thou? She, supposing him to be the gardener, saith unto him, Sir, if thou have borne him hence, tell me where thou hast laid him, and I will take him away. Jesus saith unto her, Mary. She turned herself, and saith unto him, Rabboni; which is to say, Master. Jesus saith unto her, Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father: but go to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to my God, and your God.Mary Magdalene came and told the disciples that she had seen the Lord, and that he had spoken these things unto her.”
John 20:1–18 KJV
“Then the same day at evening, being the first day of the week, when the doors were shut where the disciples were assembled for fear of the Jews, came Jesus and stood in the midst, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you.And when he had so said, he shewed unto them his hands and his side. Then were the disciples glad, when they saw the Lord. Then said Jesus to them again, Peace be unto you: as my Father hath sent me, even so send I you.And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy Ghost:Whose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; and whose soever sins ye retain, they are retained.But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came. The other disciples therefore said unto him, We have seen the Lord. But he said unto them, Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and thrust my hand into his side, I will not believe.
And after eight days again his disciples were within, and Thomas with them: then came Jesus, the doors being shut, and stood in the midst, and said, Peace be unto you.Then saith he to Thomas, Reach hither thy finger, and behold my hands; and reach hither thy hand, and thrust it into my side: and be not faithless, but believing.And Thomas answered and said unto him, My Lord and my God. Jesus saith unto him, Thomas, because thou hast seen me, thou hast believed: blessed are they that have not seen, and yet have believed.And many other signs truly did Jesus in the presence of his disciples, which are not written in this book: But these are written, that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing ye might have life through his name.”
John 20:19–31 KJV